Turtlebot入门教程-激光雷达(Rplidar)gmapping构建地图

Turtlebot入门教程-激光雷达(Rplidar)gmapping构建地图

说明

  • 介绍Turtlebot搭载激光雷达(Rplidar)通过gmapping构建地图

准备

  • 测试环境ubuntu14.04 + indigo
  • 已安装Turtlebot包,具体安装:deb包安装 | 源码安装
  • 依赖包:
    • Turtlebot应用包,https://github.com/ncnynl/turtlebot_apps.git
    • 激光雷达rplidar一代驱动,https://github.com/ncnynl/rplidar_ros.git

步骤

  • 建立工作空间(也可以利用现有的),编译包
$ mkdir -p  ~/turtlebot_ws/src
$ cd   ~/turtlebot_ws/src

## 激光雷达rplidar一代驱动
$ git clone https://github.com/ncnynl/rplidar_ros.git


## turtlebot建图依赖包
$ git clone https://github.com/turtlebot/turtlebot_apps 


#编译
$ cd  ~/turtlebot_ws
$ catkin_make
  • 添加环境变量,在~/.bashrc最后添加一行:
$ source /home/ubu/turtlebot_ws/devel/setup.bash
  • 刷新配置
$ source ~/.bashrc
$ rospack profile

创建激光雷达(Rplidar)的串口别名

  • 确认idVendor和idProduct,ID后面的部分idVendor:idProduct
$ lsusb
Bus 001 Device 006: ID 10c4:ea60
  • 新建 /etc/udev/rules.d/rplidar.rules文件,内容如下:(别名为rplidar,实际名称为:/dev/rplidar)
KERNEL=="ttyUSB*", ATTRS{idVendor}=="10c4", ATTRS{idProduct}=="ea60", MODE:="0666", GROUP:="dialout",  SYMLINK+="rplidar"    
  • 增加当前用户对串口的默认访问权限:
$ sudo usermod -a -G dialout 用户名
  • 使UDEV配置生效:(使串口的默认访问权限生效,需要重启机器)
$ sudo service udev reload
$ sudo service udev restart

制作雷达驱动启动文件

  • 复制rplidar.launch到rplidar-laser.launch,并增加TF定义
$ roscd turtlebot_navigation
$ mkdir -p laser/driver
$ sudo cp ~/turtlebot_ws/src/rplidar_ros/launch/rplidar.launch laser/driver/rplidar_laser.launch
  • 打开rplidar_laser.launch,并修改
$ rosed turtlebot_navigation rplidar_laser.launch
  • 检查frame_id是否指定为laser
<param name="frame_id" type="string" value="laser"/>
  • 查看serial_port是否指定正确端口,使用别名
  • 检查端口:<param name="serial_port" type="string" value="/dev/rplidar"/>,设置好别名,或直接端口/dev/ttyUSB0
  • 增加TF:
<node pkg="tf" type="static_transform_publisher" name="base_to_laser" args="0.0 0.0 0.18 0 0.0 0.0 base_link laser 100"/>
  • 修改为args="0.0 0.0 0.18 0 0.0 0.0 为自己的实际安装位置。详情查看,static_transform_publisher部分

  • static_transform_publisher x y z qx qy qz qw frame_id child_frame_id period_in_ms

  • 这里我假设底盘的中心点为0,雷达放在机器人托盘中心位置,X为0,高度为18CM,Z为0.18m

  • TF的单位使用米的,测量单位是CM

  • 完整代码如下:

<launch>
  <node name="rplidarNode"          pkg="rplidar_ros"  type="rplidarNode" output="screen">
  <param name="serial_port"         type="string" value="/dev/ttyUSB0"/>  
  <param name="serial_baudrate"     type="int"    value="115200"/>
  <param name="frame_id"            type="string" value="laser"/>
  <param name="inverted"            type="bool"   value="false"/>
  <param name="angle_compensate"    type="bool"   value="true"/>
  </node>

  <node pkg="tf" type="static_transform_publisher" name="base_to_laser" args="0.0 0.0 0.18 0 0.0 0.0 base_link laser 100"/>
</launch>

检查turtlebot_navigation包

  • 增加rplidar_gmapping_demo.launch文件,用于启动gmapping.
$ roscd  turtlebot_navigation
$ touch  launch/rplidar_gmapping_demo.launch
$ rosed  launch/rplidar_gmapping_demo.launch
  • 输入内容:
<launch>

  <!-- Define laser type-->
  <arg name="laser_type" default="rplidar" />

  <!-- laser driver -->
  <include file="$(find turtlebot_navigation)/laser/driver/$(arg laser_type)_laser.launch" />

  <!-- Gmapping -->
  <arg name="custom_gmapping_launch_file" default="$(find turtlebot_navigation)/launch/includes/gmapping/$(arg laser_type)_gmapping.launch.xml"/>
  <include file="$(arg custom_gmapping_launch_file)"/>

  <!-- Move base -->
  <include file="$(find turtlebot_navigation)/launch/includes/move_base.launch.xml"/>


</launch>
  • 设置laser_type为rplidar.

  • 增加rplidar_gmapping.launch.xml文件,执行gmapping建图

$ roscd  turtlebot_navigation
$ touch  launch/includes/gmapping/rplidar_gmapping.launch.xml 
$ rosed  launch/includes/gmapping/rplidar_gmapping.launch.xml 
  • 输入内容:
<launch>
  <arg name="scan_topic"  default="scan" />
  <arg name="base_frame"  default="base_footprint"/>
  <arg name="odom_frame"  default="odom"/>

  <node pkg="gmapping" type="slam_gmapping" name="slam_gmapping" output="screen">
    <param name="base_frame" value="$(arg base_frame)"/>
    <param name="odom_frame" value="$(arg odom_frame)"/>
    <param name="map_update_interval" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="maxUrange" value="4.0"/>
    <param name="maxRange" value="5.0"/>
    <param name="sigma" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="kernelSize" value="3"/>
    <param name="lstep" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="astep" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="iterations" value="5"/>
    <param name="lsigma" value="0.075"/>
    <param name="ogain" value="3.0"/>
    <param name="lskip" value="0"/>
    <param name="minimumScore" value="30"/>
    <param name="srr" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="srt" value="0.02"/>
    <param name="str" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="stt" value="0.02"/>
    <param name="linearUpdate" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="angularUpdate" value="0.0436"/>
    <param name="temporalUpdate" value="-1.0"/>
    <param name="resampleThreshold" value="0.5"/>
    <param name="particles" value="8"/>
  <!--
    <param name="xmin" value="-50.0"/>
    <param name="ymin" value="-50.0"/>
    <param name="xmax" value="50.0"/>
    <param name="ymax" value="50.0"/>
  make the starting size small for the benefit of the Android client's memory...
  -->
    <param name="xmin" value="-1.0"/>
    <param name="ymin" value="-1.0"/>
    <param name="xmax" value="1.0"/>
    <param name="ymax" value="1.0"/>

    <param name="delta" value="0.05"/>
    <param name="llsamplerange" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="llsamplestep" value="0.01"/>
    <param name="lasamplerange" value="0.005"/>
    <param name="lasamplestep" value="0.005"/>
    <remap from="scan" to="$(arg scan_topic)"/>
  </node>
</launch>

测试激光雷达gmapping构建地图

  • 上网本新开端口,打开roscore
$ roscore
  • 上网本新开端口,启动turtlebot
$ roslaunch turtlebot_bringup minimal.launch
  • 上网本新开端口,启动gmapping,用于构建地图
$ roslaunch turtlebot_navigation rplidar_gmapping_demo.launch
  • 工作机或上网本新开端口,启动键盘操作Turtlebot
$ roslaunch turtlebot_teleop keyboard_teleop.launch 
  • 工作机或上网本新开端口,启动rviz,实时查看建图情况
$ roslaunch turtlebot_rviz_launchers view_navigation.launch

构建地图结束保存地图

  • 上网本新开端口,建立目录,保存地图
$ mkdir -p ~/map
$ rosrun map_server map_saver -f ~/map/rplidar_gmapping
$ ls ~/map   #查看内容,包含rplidar_gmapping.pgm  rplidar_gmapping.yaml
  • 查看地图,已经生成rplidar_gmapping.pgm文件,可以用图像浏览器(gimp, eog, gthumb, 等等)打开查看。

利用地图进行AMCL

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